Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Synopsis - Essay Example So as to persuade the opposers, Nomani introduced her own life models and expressed that numerous Muslim ladies experienced forlornness and enduring in marriage. Mohammad Habash likewise clung to the possibility of Muslim womenÃ¢â¬â¢s opportunity of decision and asserted ladies ought to be just driven, prompted, and guided however not determined what to do. In general, the two Nomani and Habash put together their suppositions not with respect to the ground of religion; they rather tended to the idea of opportunity. It is conceivable to state that the speakersÃ¢â¬â¢ position be all around grounded; in spite of this one could see that their position was protective. Yasit Qadhi, in his turn, contradicted to what the advocates of such opportunity expressed and asserted that if a Muslim would not like to follow Words of Allah and the law, he/she ought not be viewed as a Muslim at all as a result of the underlying importance of this word and the embodiment of the religion too. At the end of the day, Qadhi talked about the inquiry from the strict perspective as well as from the point of view of the law. Thuraya Arrayed managed the inquiry from the perspective of brain science and from an amazing stature experience. Especially, she said that as youngsters are not shrewd enough they ought to be controlled. These two specialists had taught and strict position and looked more certain than Nomani and Habash. The crowd took a functioning part in the conversation too and posed testing and appropriate inquiries. As can be seen, the issue was left uncertain and each gathering stayed on a similar brain. Despite the fact that the specialists clung to contradicting sees, the note was very amicable. The opposers to the possibility of opportunity were all the more persuading. In spite of this, the crowd vote in favor of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s option to pick a spouse, which was not an astute choice on the grounds that the examined issue was of a strict
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Natural life The ?cry of nature? can even now be heard over this incredible land. I have heard the trumpet of an elk on the Great Plains...the high pitched of a bald eagle along the banks of the forcefully Mississippi...the thunder of an earthy colored falcon bear on desolate tundra...and the eat of a wild turkey among western lower regions. Stunning magnificence can even now be found in the regular scenes of this incredible land. I have seen through TVs, articles, books, and papers the transcending forests...pristine waters...rich wetlands...wide-open prairies...majestic mountains...and immense abandons buzzing with shading. I am in amazement by the unpredictability and miracle of the normal world. Really, it is the place you can discover comfort and harmony. America is really honored. A land wealthy in common assets - our feeling of experience, spearheading soul, and constancy. Irving Berlin's God Bless America, Woody Guthrie's This Land is Your Land, and Samuel Smith's America all announce an affection and regard for this land we call ?home.? It is our obligation to recover an affection and regard for the land, its magnificence, and life ?s comfort. The inheritance of our characteristic asset legacy must be saved. Instruction is the appropriate response. Through composing my paper I have discovered that jeopardized species is in excess of a name, it is a crucial and-of-itself, a strategic be careful our untamed life - for eternity. The earth is home to more than 5.2 billion individuals, each having certain requirements, needs, and wants. The procedure of utilization definitely changes the normal scene, a numerous cases to the eroding of different species. Utilization change tremendous amounts of common assets, for example, non-renewable energy sources and trees, into endless items and heaps of waste. All things considered, it straightforwardly and by implication impacts land use choices including wetland waste, the freeing from timberland, mining, rural creation, and improvement. After some time, the expanding influence of poor land use, choices, and foolish utilization of common assets have sabotaged the respectability and to keep up the capacity of the regular world, bringing about worldwide natural decrease. In his book, Earth to be decided - Ecology and the Human Spirit, Vice President Al Gore composes: ?The disharmony in our relationship to the earth, which stems to some degree from our dependence on an example of devouring ever-bigger amounts of the assets of the earth, is currently show in progressive emergencies, each denoting an increasingly damaging conflict between our human advancement and the normal world: while all dangers to nature used to be nearby and provincial, a few are presently vital . The loss of one and a half sections of land of downpour timberland consistently, the abrupt, thousand crease speeding up of the characteristic eradication rate for living species, the ozone gap above Antarctica and the diminishing of the ozone layer at all scopes, the conceivable pulverization of the atmosphere balance that makes our lives decent - all these propose the inexorably rough impact between human progress and the regular world. For progress in general, the confidence that is so basic to reestablish the equalization presently missing in our relationship to the earth is the confidence that we have a future. We can have faith in that future and work to accomplish it and save it, or we can spin aimlessly on, carrying on as though one day there will be no kids to acquire our heritage. The decision is our own; the earth is in a critical position.? What is the main danger to untamed life? What does the word ?undermined? mean? What does the word ?jeopardized mean? Does annihilation truly mean gone until the end of time? What befell the Bald Eagle? The words ?undermined? what's more, ?imperiled? are utilized to depict the status of uncommon untamed life and plant species. Undermined is utilized to arrange an animal types with perilously low populace numbers. The bald eagle is a case of an undermined natural life animal groups. Furthermore, wiped out is utilized to recognize an animal varieties that does not exist anymore or has ceased to exist. The shadowy ocean side sparrow is a case of a wiped out untamed life species. Tireless decrease in natural life populaces drove Congress to institute the Endangered Species in 1973. The demonstration ordered the government to ensure imperiled untamed life, plant species, and their living spaces. Today, there are more than 1,000 species secured by the Endangered Species Act. Roughly 50 species are included every year. The loss of any species is cause for incredible
Sunday, August 16, 2020
Common Causes of Stress in College Stress Management Situational Stress Print Common Causes of Stress in College By Elizabeth Scott, MS twitter Elizabeth Scott, MS, is a wellness coach specializing in stress management and quality of life, and the author of 8 Keys to Stress Management. Learn about our editorial policy Elizabeth Scott, MS Updated on April 12, 2019 How Stress Impacts Your Health Overview Signs of Burnout Stress and Weight Gain Benefits of Exercise Stress Reduction Tips Self-Care Practices Mindful Living James Woodson/Digital Vision/Getty Images Many students deal with stress in college â" which can be a significant factor in the dreaded Freshman 15. In fact, due partially to stress, a surprisingly high percentage of college freshmen donât go on to graduate. What accounts for this stress? The following are common college stressors: Regular Old Academic Stress Not surprisingly, the workload of college is significantly more involved than the high school workload, and it comes with less hand-holding from parents and teachers. With challenging classes, scheduling issues to coordinate, difficult tests and other academic obstacles, coupled with the most independent nature of the college learning structure, many new and returning students find themselves studying long, hard hours. Social Stress While college freshmen face the most obvious social challenges that usually involve leaving oneâs entire support structure behind, creating a new social network, dealing with being away from home for the first time and finding less parental support, most students face social stress. Finding and living with a roommate, balancing friends with school work (and often part-time jobs), and dealing with the dynamics of young adult relationships can all be difficult, and these challenges can lead to significant stress. Other Stresses There are also many miscellaneous stresses that often come from college life. Many students keep crazy hours from staying up late to study, getting up early for classes, and trying to cram in all the work and fun that can possibly fit. Often the logistics of living more independentlyâ"from laundry to car insuranceâ"can cause stress. New students deal with missing home and more seasoned students may wonder if theyâre in the right major. Most students struggle with who they are and where theyâd like to be, at least at some point in their college career. The Impact of Stress What effect do these issues have on students? Just as everyone deals with stress in a unique way, college students experience a range of consequences from stress, from mild to severe. Here are some of the common effects of stress: Experience of Stress One of the most commonly felt consequences of college stress is a feeling of being overwhelmed. While trying to find a balance of how hard to work (and play), many college students struggle with perfectionism or unhealthy habits like heavy drinking. Weight Issues Partially because of stress and partially because of other social and practical issues faced by college students, many struggles with their weight. Many gain 10-20 pounds around their first year (weight gain known as the Freshman 15), and others lose weight unintentionally or struggle with eating disorders. Dropout Rate You may be surprised to hear that roughly 50% of American students who enter college donât end up graduating! (According to U.S. Census figures, 6-in-10 high school seniors go on to college the following year, but only 29% of adults 25 and over had at least a bachelorâs degree.) Certainly, finances and life circumstances play into that figure, but the stress of college life cannot be ignored as a factor as well. Because of these factors â" and because college is supposed to be enjoyed, not endured â" itâs important to keep college stress under control. The article on college life stress relief can provide you with resources to keep these years more relaxed, productive and just plain fun.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Michelangelos Sistine Chapel ceiling is one of the most influential artworks of all time and a foundational work of Renaissance Art. Painted directly on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, the masterpiece depicts key scenes from the Book of Genesis. The complex narratives and skillfully painted human figures stunned viewers when the painting was first unveiled to the public in 1512 and continues to impress the thousands of pilgrims and tourists from around the world who visit the chapel every day. Below are seven essential facts about the Sistine Chapel ceiling and its creation. The Paintings Were Commissioned by Pope Julius IIÃ In 1508, Pope Julius II (also known as Giulio II and Il papa terribile), askedÃ Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapels ceiling. Julius was determined that Rome should be rebuilt to its former glory, and had embarked on a vigorous campaign to achieve the ambitious task. He felt that such artistic splendor would not only add luster to his own name, but also serve to supersede anything that Pope Alexander VI (a Borgia, and Julius rival) had accomplished. Michelangelo Painted Over 5,000 Square Feet of FrescoesÃ The ceiling measures about 131 feet (40 meters) long by 43 ft (13 m) wide. Although these numbers are rounded, they demonstrate the enormous scale of this nontraditional canvas. In fact, Michelangelo painted well over 5,000 square feet of frescoes. The Panels Depict More Than Just Scenes From the Book of Genesis The ceilings well-known central panels depict scenes from the Book of Genesis, from the CreationÃ to the Fall to shortly after Noahs deluge. Adjacent to each of these scenes on either side, however, are immense portraits of prophets and sibyls who foretold the coming of the Messiah. Along the bottoms of these run spandrels and lunettes containing the ancestors of Jesus and stories of tragedy in ancient Israel. Scattered throughout are smaller figures, cherubs, and ignudi (nudes). All told, there are more than 300 painted figures on the ceiling. Michelangelo Was a Sculptor, Not a Painter Michelangelo thought of himself as a sculptor and preferred working with marble to almost any other material. Prior to the ceiling frescoes, the only painting hed done was during his brief stint as a student in Ghirlandaios workshop. Julius, however, was adamant that Michelangelo Ã¢â¬âand no otherÃ¢â¬â should paint the Chapels ceiling. To convince him, Julius offered as a reward to Michelangelo the wildly lucrative commission of sculpting 40 massive figures for his tomb, a project that appealed much more to Michelangelo given his artistic style. The Paintings Took Four Years to Finish It took Michelangelo a little over four years, from July of 1508 to October of 1512, to finish the paintings. Michelangelo had never painted frescoes before and was learning the craft as he worked. Whats more, he chose to work inÃ buon fresco, the most difficult method, and one normally reserved for true masters. He also had to learn some wickedly hard techniques in perspective, namely painting figures on curved surfaces that appear correct when viewed from nearly 60 feet below. The work suffered numerous other setbacks, including mold and miserable, damp weather that disallowed plaster curing. The project was further stalled when Julius left to wage war and again when he fell ill. The ceiling project and any hope Michelangelo had of being paid were frequently in jeopardy while Julius was absent or near death. Michelangelo Didnt Really Paint Lying DownÃ Although the classic film The Agony and the Ecstasy,Ã depicts Michelangelo (played by Charlton Heston) painting the frescoes on his back, the real Michelangelo didnt work in this position. Instead, he conceived and had constructed a unique scaffolding system sturdy enough to hold workers and materials and high enough that mass could still be celebrated below. The scaffolding curved at its top, mimicking the curvature of the ceilings vault. Michelangelo often had to bend backward and paint over his headÃ¢â¬âan awkward position that caused permanent damage to his vision. Michelangelo Had Assistants MichelangeloÃ gets, and deserves, credit for the entire project. The complete design was his. The sketches and cartoons for the frescoes were all of his hand, and he executed the vast bulk of the actual painting by himself. However, the vision of Michelangelo toiling away, a solitary figure in a vacant chapel, isnt entirely accurate. He needed many assistantsÃ if only to mix his paints, scramble up and down ladders, and prepare the days plaster (a nasty business). Occasionally, a talented assistant might be entrusted with a patch of sky, a bit of landscape, or a figure so small and minor it is barely discernible from below. All of these were worked from his cartoons, however, and the temperamental Michelangelo hired and fired these assistants on such a regular basis that none of them could claim credit for any part of the ceiling. Sources and Further Reading Graham-Dixon, Andrew. Michelangelo and the Sistine Chapel. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2009.Ã Monfasani, John. A Description of the Sistine Chapel under Pope Sixtus IV. Artibus et Historiae 4.7 (1983): 9Ã¢â¬â18. Print.Ostrow, Steven F. Art and spirituality in Counter-Reformation Rome: the Sistine and Pauline chapels in S. Maria Maggiore. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
There are 3 main different types of sectors: The Private sector makes reference to organisations run by private individuals or groups which are not controlled by the state and are run for a profit. An example of an organisation operating within this sector is Delta Auto Parts. On the other hand, companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating within the public sector provides government services such as a Council and is anon profitable organisation. The Voluntary Sector consists of non-profit companies that require public donations such as charitable companies like Oxfam and The British Heart Foundation. Different organisational structures are used to organize a company and their employees. There are 4 main organisational structures called classical, functional, divisional and matrix. Classical structure is mainly used for small business and is very concentrated. Delta Auto Parts fits under this category. Functional organization has their employees divided into different groups to cover different job functions and roles. Division structures are similar to functional but are divided within that group so that they have relied on their own resources and function independently. A Matrix organization has teams which are based on different function and only complete specific tasks set on that. There are 3 main business legal structures which are used separately for different businessÃ¢â¬â¢ as it changes how the company can operate, who shares the profits and losses of the company, taxes being paid but it alsoShow MoreRelatedExplain The Size And Weakness Interrelate With External Macro Factors1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBusiness Business Environment Presented by: Md.Raza Student ID: 9170072 Executive Summery In this Assignment we will discuss about different types, and purposes of Public, Private and Voluntary sectors and their Legal structures. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(170) " competent employees at all levels of the organization is more than a matter of training, it stems from changes in recruitment and selection philosophy \(Ashkenas et al\." Define at least 5 key concepts underlying structures of cultures. Answer: Speed of messages: It is the matter of how long a message can be understood or how long does it take to understand a person. Messages interactions can be in different speeds depending upon culture. We will write a custom essay sample on 5 Key Concepts Underlying Structures of Cultures or any similar topic only for you Order Now Context: The concept is different in different cultures, so a balance is necessary for interacting within each culture. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter of how much relevant information is in the message, and already understood by both sides. So we have context situations, like a message which contain lots of meaning without much information content in one hand, and low context like a message which may not contain all relevant information. Space: The space is different in different cultures. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the matter of what is I? For example, in office, some people have invisible boundaries in one meter. Actually people have a visible physical boundary and series of invisible boundaries Time: What is the opinion of time is very culturally dependent. There are many kinds of time systems in the world, but two are most important to international business. How many things are done at once? One thing: monochromatic; many: polychromatic. To Asian, several things can be done at once, but it is very difficult to American or European. For example, American and European will think about the schedule is very important, they care about when, how and where. But Asian will think about goal is the most important and they will do some adjust and increase of efficiency. Information flow The mean is Path data takes from its original setting to its end users. In Low-context countries, such as USA, Canada, Israel, German-speaking countries and Scandinavia, information spreads slowly and bocused. But the Higher Context Cultures: China, Arab countries, Italy, Greece, Japan, Spain, Korea, India, Brazil and Russia information will spread rapidly. So the information flow is different in different cultures. 2. Define the 4 types of global organizations. Answer: a. Ethnocentric corporations: the corporations are home-country-oriented. Ethnocentric managers believe that home-country nationals are more intelligent, reliable, and trustworthy than foreign nationals. b. Polycentric corporations: the polycentric firm establishes multinational operations on condition that host-country managers Ã¢â¬Å"do it their wayÃ¢â¬ . Host-country nationals have high or absolute sovereignty over the subsidiaryÃ¢â¬â¢s operations. The polycentric firm is a loosely connected group with quasi-independent subsidiaries as profit centers. c. Regiocentric corporations: these corporations capitalize on the synergistic benefits of sharing common functions across regions. A regiocentric corporation believes that only regional insiders can effectively co-ordinate functions within the region. d. Geocentric corporations: the geocentric system is highly interdependent. Subsidiaries are no longer satellites and independent city-states. he entire organization is focused on both worldwide and local objectives. 3. Discuss the Yin and Yang of managing in Asia Ã¢â¬â 200 words or more. Answer: American management styles, almost universally, presuppose the importance of the individual. We value empowerment, proactive decision making, and ownership of the task. This style of management reflects our Western tradition of the power of rational control and the inherent equality of all people. Asian management styles typically subordinate the role of the individual to the greater demands of the group. The power of obligations and relationships and the respect for order are of greater importance in the East. In the West, efficiency and change often equal effectiveness; in the East, passive acceptance of what is, and the ability to perfect oneÃ¢â¬â¢s work with others within the existing conditions, might be a greater virtue Ã¢â¬â and the way to a smooth-running, successful organization. The Yin and Yang are contradiction and complementation. It is very difficult to work between Asian and Westerner, but the human resource managers and employees should recognize that deep differences of values and beliefs. Then employees need to coordinate in dealing with Asian colleagues and subordinates. And build a bridge between Asian and Westerner. So, bringing yin and yang together would drum up business. 4. Define the following Boundary less concepts. Paradigm:underlying the rise of various forms of Ã¢â¬Å"new organizationÃ¢â¬ to which have been ascribed the terms virtual organization, empowered organization, high-performing work teams, and process reengineered organizations is Ã¢â¬Å"a single, deeper paradigm shift that we call the emergence of the boundaryless organizationÃ¢â¬ , (p. 2; Ashkenas st al. 1995). This shift recognizes the limitations of the following four types of organizational boundaries: vertical (between levels and ranks of people), horizontal (between functions and disciplines), external (between the organization and its suppliers, customers, and regulators), and geographic (between nations, cultures, and markets). In the boundaryless organization, these boundaries are not used to separate people, processes and places, rather, the focus is how to move ideas, information, talent, and decisions where they are most necessary (Ashkenas et al. 1995). Employment arrangements: an increase in nontraditional employment contracts between the worker and the organization is cited as an example of blurred organizational boundaries (Miner ;amp; Robinson, 1994), as well as evidence of a post-job society (Bridges, 1994). The term contract denotes the different forms employment is taking in the 1990s: temporary, part-time, job-sharing, consulting, contracting, and leasing. Although some employees have little choice but to accept one of these forms of employment, many employees welcome these options for more flexible hours and more control over where they work, how they work, and which projects they would most prefer (Belous, 1989). Job Analysis: is the measurement of tasks and / or worker attributes for a given job, thus, job analysis techniques can be classified as work-oriented or worker-oriented (Gatewood ;amp; Field, 1994). Work-oriented methods involve specific descriptions of the various tasks performed on a job, whereas worker-oriented methods examine broad human behaviors involved in work activities. Skills Emphasis and work Analysis: given that functional boundaries will continue to blur (Ashkenas et al. , 1995; Miner ;amp; Robinson, 1994), boundaryless organizations may eventually collapse Ã¢â¬Å"jobsÃ¢â¬ into more comprehensive task of job analysis less cumbersome; it could contribute to a culture wherein workers are afforded more freedom and opportunity to engage in different work activities. Recruitment: gaining competent employees at all levels of the organization is more than a matter of training, it stems from changes in recruitment and selection philosophy (Ashkenas et al. You read "5 Key Concepts Underlying Structures of Cultures" in category "Papers" 1995). Specifically, the boundaryless organization emphasizes the development of a shared mindset among all of its employees and the continuous support of this collective culture. Although Ashkenas et al. (1995) donÃ¢â¬â¢t describe specific recruiting approaches that aid in achieving this cohesive culture, they state the importance of thoroughly screening applicants, sometimes with the help of customers, based on skills and personality traits that match the technical and cultural needs of the organization. 5. What are the dilemmas of boundaryless recruitment and selection? A dilemma regarding a high degree of person-organization culture fit surfaces: what about the potentially negative consequences of attracting and selecting too many like-minded individuals? For instance, Schneider (1987) has suggested that organizational dysfunction and eventual demise can be traced to an overabundance of homogeneous worker characteristics. As a corollary, some diversity of worker attributes may be necessary to respond to environmental threats and opportunities, ultimately ensuring the viability of the organization. Another caveat to consider is the possibility of adverse impact. Any employment test which results in different acceptance/pass rates for individuals belonging to different groups must be validated and its continued use demonstrated as necessary. Thus, the very homogeneity of employee values proposed as necessary for the success of the boundaryless organization may lead to two serious problems: decreased organizational performance and adverse impact. Approximately how much and what kinds of cultural parity between worker and organization are necessary for a productive mindset? Approximately how much and what kinds of cultural similarity between worker and organization lead to litigation and/or poor organizational adaptability? It may be that just as the organization needs different skill sets to accomplish a unified performance goal, organizations need different traits and worker characteristics to accomplish the longer-term goal of survival (Schneider, 1987). However, worker heterogeneity does not necessarily preclude the selection of homogeneous traits that primarily serve to reinforce core values and pivotal norms. More research is needed to build theory and enhance practitioner success in recruiting and selecting workers for boundaryless organizations. 6. How does one build a global work force with recruitment? Answer: Every year, hundreds of companies expand their operations into the global marketplace. At the same time, corporations that are established in the international sphere redefine their business to maintain a competitive edge. For organizations in both categories, recruitment and international assignment are key determinants of long-term success. Today, HR professionals in progressive global companies are discovering that it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough just to look for these skills among members of the expatriate community. Rather, every employee needs to have a certain level of global awareness, and many companies are finding that screening must begin at recruitment. Form many corporations, international recruitment is synonymous with expatriate selection. Within this area, significant progress has been made to ensure candidates are screened for global competency, with includes such qualities as flexibility, open-mindedness, technical expertise, multiple language proficiency and the willingness to take risks. In addition to recruiting for expatriate potential, HR professionals are finding that employees who have international experience and language proficiency help the company function on a day-to-day basis. Mangers must understand differing cultural norms to perform well on business trips and short-term assignments in other parts of the world. 7. Define the four faces of global cultures. Answer: Davos: from boardroom to bedroom This culture is globalized as a direct accompaniment of global economic processes. Its carrier is international business. It has obvious behavioral aspects that are directly functional in economic terms, behavior dictated by the accoutrements of contemporary business. Participants in this culture know how to deal with computers, cellular phones, airline schedules, currency exchange, and the like. But they also dress alike, exhibit the same amicable informality, relieve tensions by similar attempts at humor, and of course most of them interact in English. Since most of these cultural traits are of Western provenance, individuals coming from different backgrounds must go through a process of socialization that will allow them to engage in this behavior with seemingly effortless spontaneity. Faculty club international: This is the internationalization of the Western intelligentsia, its values and ideologies. It is carried by foundations, academic networks, non-governmental organizations, and some governmental and multinational agencies. The Ã¢â¬Å"faculty club cultureÃ¢â¬ spreads its beliefs and values through the educational system, the legal system, various therapeutic institutions, think tanks, and at least some of the media of mass communication. If this culture internationalizes the Western intelligentsia, it also internationalizes the conflicts in which this intelligentsia has been engaged on its home territories. The McWorld culture: The McWorld culture is most credibly subsumed under the category of Westernization, since virtually all of it is of Western, and more specifically American, provenance. These critics of Ã¢â¬Å"culture imperialismÃ¢â¬ also understand that the diffusion of popular culture is not just a matter of outward behavior. It carries a significant freight of beliefs and values. Evangelical Protestantism: Provide a distinctive process of globalization, especially in its Pentecostal version (which accounts for something like 80 percent of its worldwide growth). This globalizing force is best seen by comparing it with the other dynamic religious phenomenon of our time, that of the Islamic resurgence. Evangelical Protestantism brings about a cultural revolution in its new territories (in that respect it is very different from its social function on its American home ground). It brings about radical changes in the relations between men and women, in the upbringing and education of children, in the attitudes toward traditional hierarchies. Most importantly, it inculcates precisely that Ã¢â¬Å"Protestant ethicÃ¢â¬ that Max Weber analyzed as an important ingredient in the genesis of modern capitalism Ã¢â¬â a disciplined, frugal, and rationally oriented approach to work. Thus, despite it indigenization, Evangelical Protestantism is the carrier of a pluralistic and modernizing culture whose original location is in the North Atlantic societies. 8. Discuss and describe the challenges of Diversity Training in Texaco, UNUM, GTE and Gannett. Answer Texaco: work in progress TexacoÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy started to take shape two years ago when Gadsden the manager of U. S. workforce diversity and EEO compliance for Texaco Inc. came on board. According to the diversity manager, the impetus stemmed from a number of sources: changing demographics in the workplace and TexacoÃ¢â¬â¢s customer base, the oil companyÃ¢â¬â¢s quest to be a top-tier company, and the need to fully utilize every member of an organization that over the past five years has shrunk from approximately 27,000 to 19,300 employees. Thorough focus groups and a national survey of more than 3,000 of its workers, Texaco leaned how employees felt about the oil company in general, its training and development, its promotion policies and compensation, and whether Texaco and its managers valued a diverse workforce. In the survey results, employees need to improve promotion of minorities. They want managers to be held more accountable on managing diversity and better educated on how to communicate with employees of differing backgrounds. A cross-function team was requested to ask for the promotion process by TexacoÃ¢â¬â¢s managements. The team discovered that employees wanted a streamlined application process and more feedback on the outcome of promotion requests. Therefore, the cross-functions team supplied work guide of how to get promoted. In the other hand, they improved a diversity training component to highest-level executives, then extend diversity training to all employees. One of the more difficult aspects of workplace diversity is finding the funding for it. Gadsden has succeeded in part by being frugal. He worked with a group of 14 independent consultants rather than handing the contract over to one big firm. He bargained and haggled with his vendors, getting them to reduce fees in return for a guaranteed amount of work. While he uses outside facilitators for his workshops, he also employs internal staff to save money, plus the employees learn by running the programs. Gadsden estimates his cost at $224 a person versus what Gadsden calls a company average of about $1,379 per person. Like any workplace diversity program, TexacoÃ¢â¬â¢s is a work in progress. UNUM: visible diversity 1989, the UNUM Life Insurance Company of America has experiencing high turnover among the very minority workers it was trying so hard to recruit. Ã¢â¬Å"We were in compliance mode, doing affirmative action, and trying to bring women and minorities into the company. Ã¢â¬ Sandy Bishop, manager of UNUMÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity programs says. Ã¢â¬Å"We wanted our business environment to mirror our world, the people we were insuring. Its proactive program began simply enough with its HR staff developing a diversity philosophy. In addition, the HR department brokered meeting between senior executives, the majority of whom were white males, and representatives of minority groups. Like Texaco, UNUM began with an internal audit of what needed to be done. Out of that came a three-day diversity workshop designed to build Ã¢â¬Å"cultural competence. Ã¢â¬ In its effort to integrate the diversity debate with other business issues, UNUM has an informal diversity structure. Corporate communications, for example, publishes a newsletter addressing diversity issues. UNUM also has an education committee that set up Ã¢â¬Å"Lunch and LearnÃ¢â¬ talks on diversity. As part of its outreach activities, the company has also launched community programs that deal in diversity. While UNUMÃ¢â¬â¢s earlier efforts were restricted to company headquarters, the disability insurer this year is extending its diversity programs to its branch offices. And of the five diversity seminars that UNUM will hold this year, three of them will be in remote locations. GTE: mutual respect Telecommunications giant GTE got serious about diversity in the early 1990s for two reasons, says Randy MacDonald, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s senior vice president of human resources and administration. Ã¢â¬Å"First was recognition of the changing workplaceÃ¢â¬ ¦more spouses working and more immigration. Second, and this is still evolving, is that while weÃ¢â¬â¢re U. S. based, the workplace is becoming global and we need to address marketplace diversity. Ã¢â¬ GTE combines its workplace diversity efforts with its work/family programs (telecommuting, flextime, seminars on balancing work and family). The diversity end consists of minority recruitment, employee career advancement, training on managing and being part of a diverse workforce, as well as multicultural awareness events that celebrate diversity. The telecommunications company has made a conscious effort to recruit minorities on college campuses, once a person is on board, he or she is eligible for career advancement training, regardless of ethnic background. The company does offer some specialized educational programs for minorities. Through its actions, the company has increased minority and female representation among its managers. Gannett: total integration Gannett Corp. Inc. may well have the granddaddy of diversity programs. The media conglomerate first embarked on managing diversity in 1980. While minority recruitment was first emphasized by Gannett, the media company has expanded into career advancement training. The company also publishes an in-house newsletter devoted to the topic and sponsors noon seminars. According to the diversity manager, what has made GannettÃ¢â¬â¢s program work is the fact that it is closely aligned with overall business aims. 9. Describe the adult learning theory culture-bound. Answer: The underlying assumptions behind experiential training are worth investigating to begin determining the universality or cultural relativity of the fieldÃ¢â¬â¢s mainstream methodologies. Holvino (1982) found experiential learning to be: * Active and participatory * Learning how to learn * Based on interdependence or independence * Based on learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s internal direction * Shared responsibility for leaning * Built on experience and knowledge of learners * Shared access to power and knowledge * Focused on problem identification and solution Information seeking and sharing 10. What are the cultural training techniques? Answer: Training techniques are commonly characterized as falling along a spectrum from Didactic (trainer-centered, low-risk, content-oriented) to Experiential (learner-centered, high-risk, process-oriented). In HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s terminology, Didactic techniques can be considered to have a high Power Distance and strong Uncertainty Avoidance value orientati on, while experiential techniques can be considered to have a low Power Distance and weak Uncertainty Avoidance value orientation. By juxtaposing HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural value spectrum with this training technique spectrum, we create a guideline for predicting the relative appropriateness of different training techniques for different cultural groups. If we compare the two sides of Figure 20. 1, we can predict which techniques might be appropriate for a given cultural group. Appropriate techniques are those that might most effectively challenge the participants without eliciting a high level of resistance. How to cite 5 Key Concepts Underlying Structures of Cultures, Papers
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We offer full time and part time quailty care. Organizational Culture Our company culture values employees who are motivated, energetic, creative, and dedicated. We will have weekly meetings to gather creative ideas to create fun learning experiences for the children. We value input that leads to growth. Employees must be trustworthy, team players, and have strong communication skills. TayaÃ¢â¬â¢s child development center is set up within functional and geographic structure. Our functunal structure focus on our employees working together because of their expertise to meet the childrens needs. We have a director, assisant director, lead teachers, assistant teachers, and teachers aids that work together. Our geographic structure focus on to make sure we are meeting the need of the community. We are dedicated to serve the children in our neghborhood. We are a full time service child development center. I selected functional structures because in order to run a child development center I need experience and educated teacher to work together to provide high quality child care. We will write a custom essay sample on Job Fair Brochure or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Employees grouped together because they have the same expertise of the same jobs, so they can easily communicate and share information with each other. They can often make decisions quickly and effectively by working together. Ã¢â¬Å"A functional structure also makes it easier for people to learn from one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences and improve their skillsÃ¢â¬ (Jones, 2007). I also selected geographic structures because we have to make sure we are providing care for the need of the neighborhood. I think functional and geographic structures will help to build and strong business. I would have a Sole proprietorship child development center. I will operate a daycare center business in my name. I will be the only owner and I will hirer qualified teachers to help me run my child development center. My company is dedicated to serve the children and parents need in our community. We will meet the needs of each child indiviually. We will cater to infants, toddlers, and perschoolers in our community. We will help nuture and guide the children through social emotional, sensory and congnitive skills. We will provide fun learning experience for each age group of children. We will offer full time and part time care to meet the needs of our families in the community. We will offer music, yoga, and spanish enrichment learning classes. My business will help the children and parents in the community. I have selected organizational culture for my company values and norms that influence how people and groups behave and interact with one another. I want to create a happy and fun enivornment for my staff , parents, and children. My company culture values employees who are motivated, energtic, creative, and dedicated. We will have weekly team meetings to gather creative ideas to create fun learning experiences for the children. We value input that leads to growth. Employees must be trustworthy, team players, and have strong communication skills. The values I want my company to develop are excellence, stability, predictability, profitability, economy, creativeness, morality, and usefulness. Ã¢â¬Å"Company norms specify or prescribe the kinds of shared beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s members should hold and follow. Norms are informal but powerful rules about how employees should conduct themselves if they want to be accepted and successfulÃ¢â¬ (Jones, 2007). Organizational culture will allow my staff interact with one another and create a fun learning experience for the children and each other. It will also allow us to work in a fun loving environment. References Jones, G. R. 2007). Introduction to business: How companies create value for people. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY IÃ certify thatÃ the attachedÃ paper is my original work. I am familiar with, and acknowledge my responsibilities which are part of, the University of Phoenix Student Code of Academic Integrity . I affirm that any section of the paper which has been submitted previously is attributed and cited as such, and that this paper has not been submitted by anyone else. I have identified the sources of all information whether quoted verbatim or paraphrased, all images, and all quotations with citations and reference listings. Along with citations and reference listings, I have used quotation marks to identify quotations of fewer than 40 words and have used block indentation for quotations of 40 or more words. Nothing in this assignment violates copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property laws. I further agree that my name typedÃ on the line below is intended to have, and shall have, the same validity as my handwritten signature. StudentsÃ signature (name typed here is equivalent to a signature): Shawntaya Lewis